Mike Hand Books

Ontario Industrial Histories

Category: ontario

Tudhope Carriages and Cars

James Tudhope was an aggressive industrialist, building a thriving carriage business from that originally founded by his father in 1874. By 1902, the Tudhope Carriage Co. Ltd. factory occupied a full three city blocks in the downtown area of Orillia.  A separate company, Tudhope Anderson Co. Ltd. was formed, and used part of the existing factory to produce a line of wagons and farm equipment marketed under the name TACO.  In 1907, Tudhope entered the burgeoning car business, building a high wheeled automobile that looked more like a Phaeton carriage than a car. (A mint condition Tudhope automobile can still be seen in the Oshawa Car museum.) This venture died when the plant burned down in 1909.

tudhope car

Tudhope Motor Buggy

The plant, with a carriage capacity of 25,000 units a year was rebuilt without delay, helped by a $50,000 interest free loan from the city. Although his love was carriages, and he had organised a new company under the name of Carriage Factories Ltd., Tudhope wanted to get back into the car business. He made a deal with the US manufacturer to build the Everett 30 car under license. This car, built by the Tudhope Motor Co., turned out to have design flaws in the rear axle and by 1913 the subsidiary was in bankruptcy.

tudhope everitt

Everitt Car

His Carriage Factory company had been merged with three other Ontario carriage manufacturers as Tudhope pursued his dream of a carriage building empire, but the rapidly growing auto business was overtaking him, despite his attempts to be a part of it. Striving to stay alive in the disappearing carriage business, he built bodies for auto makers along with all-weather tops to keep his factories busy. As car manufacturers began building their own covered bodies, Tudhope’s business slowed down, and in 1924, he sold his dream of an empire, Carriage Factories Ltd., to the Cockshutt Plow Co. who merged it into their Canada Carriage and Body Ltd. subsidiary in Brantford.

Four year later, his farm equipment and wagon building business, TACO, was sold and reorganised under the name of OTACO Ltd, and a huge new foundry, ( now part of Kubota) was built in the outskirts of Orillia.  The OTACO name continued to exist until 2007 as an auto seat manufacturer in an Orillia suburb.

tudhope, cars, carriages.

Factory Chimney in Orillia

James Tudhope died in 1936, and despite his ventures into car building, never learned to drive one. His name lives on in Orillia in a downtown park, and for many years towered over the city in white letters on the high brick chimney at the remaining part of his down town factory. In 2000, the chimney was taken down due to deterioration into an unsafe condition.

Tree Harvesting

The Koehring Waterous Co. of Brantford, (formerly Waterous Engine Works. Ltd.), had been a major manufacturer of sawmill and wood processing equipment since the mid 1800’s, with such products as de-barkers, shredders and grinders for wood pulping, From the mid 1960’s, they remade the company into a manufacturer of large self-propelled wood harvesters, introducing the pulpwood forwarder, a rubber tired machine that could pick up and carry loads of eight foot logs. With the acceptance of this machine, their line of wood harvesting machinery was steadily expanded, the engineering group being headed by Canadian engineer John Kurelek.

tree felling

felling head assembly

Among the machines developed in the late 1970’s was the feller forwarder which cut down the trees using hydraulic shears. This damaged the wood around the cut off area and eventually the Forestry Engineering Research Institute asked Koehring to do some research on alternately using a saw to eliminate this butt damage. Under John’s direction, a prototype was placed in the field with positive results. Koehring improved the design, and drawing upon its one hundred plus years of Waterous’ saw making experience, finally developed the Disc Saw Felling Head that could cut through the trunk in seconds. Utilising a 55” diameter, one inch thick disc with bolted on carbide tipped saw teeth around the perimeter, hydraulically driven and mounted horizontally at the lower end of the felling head, it replaced the hydraulic shears. Rotating at 1,150 rpm, it was mounted in a rigid housing that left 90 degrees of the saw exposed, allowing it to cut up to 22” diameter trees. The head was fitted with a wrist mechanism that could tilt 15 degrees either way for cutting on sloping ground.

felling head saw

Disc saw blade

It was an instant success and requests began to come in from other original equipment manufacturers to purchase it for attachment to their own forestry equipment. After much discussion, Koehring made the decision, even though they had patent protection on major areas of the design, to allow such sales, a marketing style they had not previous undertaken. It was a momentous decision as it successfully delayed development of competing designs for some years. Within seven years, the company had shipped over one thousand of these disc saw felling heads.

tree felling

Felling head cutting tree

In 1988, the company was sold to Timberjack Machines of Woodstock, Ontario, a major manufacturer of log skidders. Three years later, Timberjack was purchased by Rauma Repola, a Finnish wood harvesting machine manufacturer. The 100 year old Brantford Waterous plant was closed, and the only product transferred to the new owner’s production was the Disc Saw Felling Head.

Today, the Disc Saw Feller is manufactured by most major wood harvesting equipment manufacturers throughout the world, a tribute to the design and engineering skills of the team at Brantford manufacturer, Koehring Waterous.

http://Iron, Steam and Wood

Early self propelled grader

 

The early pioneer equipment manufacturers were never short of ideas to incorporate into their products. Take, for example, this early 1920’s road grader made by the Sawyer Massey Company of Hamilton.

Prior to this, graders were primarily pulled by horses, or later by steam rollers, an arrangement that was not only cumbersome but limited in its capability. How to make one with its own power was their problem, unable to develop their own power unit, transmission and drive axle.

sawyer massey

Sawyer Massey grader with Fordson tractor power unit

What evolved was quite original and effective, and although the concept was only used for some ten years in production, it enabled them to take grader development to the next stage. A standard farm tractor, whose development had reached the stage where they were no longer huge gasoline engine conversions of a steam traction engine, was built into the rear portion of the grader. With the rear wheels and drive axle left in place to power the grader, the front axle of the tractor was removed and replaced with a supporting bracket.

Initially, a Fordson tractor was used, as shown above, and later a McCormick Deering tractor, a product of the International Harvester Company took its place.

sawyer massey, IHC

Sawyer Massey grader with McCormick Deering power unit

Bingo, a first for Ontario, a self-propelled grader

For more, see my book Steam Engines and Threshers

Early Central Heating

 

There are still a few octopus like monsters to be found in old house basements but by and large, the present generation have never seen one of these old gravity type hot air furnaces.

Until the late 1880’s, most houses were “heated” by means of a cast iron stove fueled by wood. One of Canada’s major stove manufacturers was the London, Ontario  company, McClary Manufacturing Ltd. Stoves were actually only one product out of hundreds produced by this company who turned out tin-ware products for every possible use in the home and workshop. Their factory grew until it occupied the whole block at York and Wellington in downtown London, employing over 700 persons by 1900.

McClary Sunshine furnace

Factory fresh McClary Sunshine furnace ready for ducts to be added

Around 1890, McClary began to build  “central air” furnaces,  a cast iron stove surrounded by a galvanised housing from which sprouted large round ducts carrying hot air to each of the rooms in the house. With no fan, air movement was by convection in which the hot air rises. Iron grills in the floor led to even larger ducts that carried the cold air, by gravity, back to the furnace which was usually installed in the basement. After a few years of slow selling builders were, by 1900, adopting this type of furnace in their new house construction and soon McClary was supplying furnaces for whole streets of houses all across the country. They were extremely inefficient by today’s standards but were a miraculous addition to the home owner of 1900.

furnace

old mcclary furnace

I can still recall in the mid 1950’s, my wife-to-be’s father doing his nightly chore on his octopus furnace before retiring to bed. He would descend to the basement and for the next five minutes the house would resonate with clanging as he dragged the ashes out, stirred and re-stoked the coal fire, to ensure that it would continue to ward off the winter cold until morning.

 

Read more in my book Where Did They Go.

Hard Selling in Days Gone By

In today’s “protected” world, the hard sell is severely crimped by the need to only promise what you can guarantee to deliver, under penalty of legal attack.
No such restrictions were recognised in the era of rapid mechanisation of all industries, especially farming. Manufacturers let loose their best works in the writing of advertisements for their products, reaching deeply for the most flowery adjectives in describing their products capabilities.

Noxon Grain Binder

Noxon Grain Binder

In researching for the data for my books, I frequently find examples of this in old copies of the manufacturers product manuals. One classic example of this excessive enthusiasm by the copy writer was found in the 1893 catalog of Noxon Bros., a farm equipment manufacturer based in Ingersoll, Ontario. In the introduction of their new grain binder, the description states …. “our binder which stands above the adverse criticism of the most exacting purchaser, or the most critical investigation of the expert mechanic ….. and which has ….. established a reputation which leaves little or nothing to be added to, so perfect does its record stand. ….. no machine was ever constructed in which the demands upon it are more completely met in every way than in this perfect structure of steel.”
How could one resist purchasing such a piece of machinery! Would that today’s advertising writer be as free as in those days to extoll the virtues of their product.
See more in my book Where Did They Go

A Case Showcased

Driving along number three highway to the lake each weekend, just east of Sheddon, I found myself looking each time at the old thirties era steel wheeled Case tractor, complete with two furrow trailing plow showcased on a small artificial hillock. Perched on the driver’s seat, the old farmer in his faded coveralls had his arm held high in greeting to each passing motorist. It was a welcome treat to see this unusual display of a well-used piece of farm equipment that obviously held an esteemed place in the memory of its owner.

Case tractor with farmer

Case tractor with farmer

Later in the summer, the farmer’s wife joined him on the hillock greeting the passer by, along with their dog, a great creation of straw. It was only natural that when we reached the approach to Halloween, their heads would be replaced with brightly coloured pumpkins.

Wife and dog added

Wife and dog added


It was a wonderful visual break to the car trip to see how the usually routine siting of an old farm tractor at the farm entrance was made out of the ordinary with a little imagination and artistic work.

Follow old tractor discussions at Canadian Antique Tractor Forum

Brantford’s Heritage Disappearing

Over the last few years, the remaining factories of Brantford’s great industrial past are being demolished one by one and with them go physical ties to the memories of thousands of the city’s workers of yesteryear. Just prior to the turn of the millennium, the “brownfields” between Greenwich and Mohawk Streets still contained the factories of the once mighty Cockshutt Plow Company, the huge rambling foundries of the Massey Ferguson owned Verity Company, and the triangular shaped complex of buildings that was once the home of the Brantford Coach and Body Company (formerly Adams Wagon Company).

Adams Wagon plant

Adams Wagon plant

The first to disappear was the Adams Wagon factory which went under the hammer of Kieswetter demolition in 1998. The razing of the Cockshutt factory followed in stages a few years later as the various buildings comprising the west side of the complex were emptied of miscellaneous tenants who had occupied them since the closing of the Cockshutt Company (White Equipment Company at that time). The final section to be demolished was the multi storey office building after several years of decay and attempts to keep it as an industrial museum.

Remaining Cockshutt office and time office before fire

Remaining Cockshutt office and time office before fire

A final delay to keep the front section of the office building was thwarted when a questionable fire resulted in mandatory demolition of the remainder for safety reasons. Valuable historic voices did score a small victory when the front door portico of the head office building and the architectural gem of the Time Office were retained for possible future use for industrial heritage purposes. Still remaining at the east end of the former factory complex is the building that once housed World War two bomber fuselage production and subsequently, the Cockshutt combine harvester assembly line, along with a couple of machine and press shops still used for warehousing.

Verity

Verity plant complex

The final section of the brownfields across the railroad tracks to the north housed the huge foundry complex of the Verity Company. From these factories, first built in 1899, came hundreds of thousands of plows and millions of castings and parts for the Massey Ferguson factories. With the bankruptcy of Massey Combines came the closing of the Verity works in 1988. Unused since then except for some storage purposes, decay and vandalism wreaked havoc with the buildings so that many were in a severely sad and hazardous condition prior to the current 2014 demolition.

Only the future can tell what will rise on these huge now open properties to generate memories for the next generation of Brantford citizens.

Read more about these companies in my book  A City’s Industrial Heritage

Leonard steam engine spotlighted

On a recent visit to Edmonton, we took a detour to the small town of Wetaskiwin where I was able to fulfil my long desire to see the Reynolds Alberta museum. The huge pieces of steam equipment lining the drive into the museum were almost worth the visit.

But on entering the modern museum building, I was fascinated to see a huge horizontal engine spotlighted in the glassed in entrance. Polished like new, its steel parts glistening, the huge flywheel turned over slowly as an electric motor cycled the engines piston and elaborate valve gear.

The surprise, on studying the placard inside the building more closely, was to find that the engine was made in London, Ontario by the E. Leonard & Sons Company. The surprise part was that I was unaware that the company had made steam engines of this size, equalling those made in Galt by the Goldie McCulloch Company. It was a great entrance installation, and was matched by the exhibits of machinery and equipment inside.

Leonard engine

Leonard engine in Wetaskiwin museum entrance

Read the history of the Leonard Company in my book “Steam Engines and Threshers”.

Into the light

An old Waterous boiler was in the news recently during the renovation of an old apartment building that in earlier years had been an Eaton store, at 90, Colborne St. E. in Brantford. The boiler was part of the old heating system in the cavernous basement.

Waterous boiler door

Boiler door before removal

The building was rebuilt in 1915 after being gutted in a fire and the boiler was installed sometime later. The name cast into the boiler door shows “Waterous Limited”, indicating it was made some time after 1926, the year when the company name was changed from “Waterous Engine Works” to “Waterous Limited”.

The new owners retained the old doors from the boiler, cleaned and repainted them. They now adorn the foyer of the renovated building in recognition of this venerable old company that is an integral part of Brantford’s industrial legacy.

Waterous boiler door after restoration

Boiler door mounted in foyer after restoration

You can read more about the Waterous company in my book “Iron, Steam and Wood”.

Spotted in the Wild: 1885 Adams Wagon

On a recent visit to the Waterloo Regional Museum, I had the pleasure of being escorted around the museum’s storage warehouse, an area one could spend hours investigating. What did I see – an Adams wagon with its original paint job and logo – somewhat faded. When I checked the serial number, and went back to my records, I found that it was made around 1885 in the Paris factory, some fifteen years before they moved to a new factory in Brantford.

1885 Adams Wagon

This is the oldest Adams wagon that I have seen, or have knowledge of. And it was in completely undamaged condition. Look forward to when the museum sees fit to put in in a display in the public part of the museum.

I talk more about Adams wagon in my book “From Wagon to Trailer

 

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